Built in Functions

Vyper provides a collection of built in functions available in the global namespace of all contracts.

Bitwise Operations

bitwise_and(x: uint256, y: uint256) → uint256

Perform a “bitwise and” operation. Each bit of the output is 1 if the corresponding bit of x AND of y is 1, otherwise it’s 0.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256, y: uint256) -> uint256:
    return bitwise_and(x, y)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(31337, 8008135)
12353
bitwise_not(x: uint256) → uint256

Return the complement of x - the number you get by switching each 1 for a 0 and each 0 for a 1.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256) -> uint256:
    return bitwise_not(x)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(0)
115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639935
bitwise_or(x: uint256, y: uint256) → uint256

Perform a “bitwise or” operation. Each bit of the output is 0 if the corresponding bit of x AND of y is 0, otherwise it’s 1.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256, y: uint256) -> uint256:
    return bitwise_or(x, y)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(31337, 8008135)
8027119
bitwise_xor(x: uint256, y: uint256) → uint256

Perform a “bitwise exclusive or” operation. Each bit of the output is the same as the corresponding bit in x if that bit in y is 0, and it’s the complement of the bit in x if that bit in y is 1.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256, y: uint256) -> uint256:
    return bitwise_xor(x, y)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(31337, 8008135)
8014766
shift(x: uint256, _shift: int128) → uint256

Return x with the bits shifted _shift places. A positive _shift value equals a left shift, a negative value is a right shift.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256, y: int128) -> uint256:
    return shift(x, y)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(2, 8)
512

Chain Interaction

create_forwarder_to(target: address, value: uint256 = 0[, salt: bytes32]) → address

Deploys a small contract that duplicates the logic of the contract at target, but has it’s own state since every call to target is made using DELEGATECALL to target. To the end user, this should be indistinguishable from an independantly deployed contract with the same code as target.

Note

It is very important that the deployed contract at target is code you know and trust, and does not implement the selfdestruct opcode as this will affect the operation of the forwarder contract.

  • target: Address of the contract to duplicate
  • value: The wei value to send to the new contract address (Optional, default 0)
  • salt: A bytes32 value utilized by the CREATE2 opcode (Optional, if supplied deterministic deployment is done via CREATE2)

Returns the address of the duplicated contract.

@external
def foo(_target: address) -> address:
    return create_forwarder_to(_target)
raw_call(to: address, data: Bytes, max_outsize: int = 0, gas: uint256 = gasLeft, value: uint256 = 0, is_delegate_call: bool = False, is_static_call: bool = False) → Bytes[max_outsize]

Call to the specified Ethereum address.

  • to: Destination address to call to
  • data: Data to send to the destination address
  • max_outsize: Maximum length of the bytes array returned from the call. If the returned call data exceeds this length, only this number of bytes is returned.
  • gas: The amount of gas to attach to the call. If not set, all remainaing gas is forwarded.
  • value: The wei value to send to the address (Optional, default 0)
  • is_delegate_call: If True, the call will be sent as DELEGATECALL (Optional, default False)
  • is_static_call: If True, the call will be sent as STATICCALL (Optional, default False)

Returns the data returned by the call as a Bytes list, with max_outsize as the max length.

Returns None if max_outsize is omitted or set to 0.

Note

The actual size of the returned data may be less than max_outsize. You can use len to obtain the actual size.

Returns the address of the duplicated contract.

@external
@payable
def foo(_target: address) -> Bytes[32]:
    response: Bytes[32] = raw_call(_target, 0xa9059cbb, max_outsize=32, value=msg.value)
    return response
raw_log(topics: bytes32[4], data: Union[Bytes, bytes32]) → None

Provides low level access to the LOG opcodes, emitting a log without having to specify an ABI type.

  • topics: List of bytes32 log topics. The length of this array determines which opcode is used.
  • data: Unindexed event data to include in the log. May be given as Bytes or bytes32.
@external
def foo(_topic: bytes32, _data: Bytes[100]):
    raw_log([_topic], _data)
selfdestruct(to: address) → None

Trigger the SELFDESTRUCT opcode (0xFF), causing the contract to be destroyed.

  • to: Address to forward the contract’s ether balance to

Warning

This method delete the contract from the blockchain. All non-ether assets associated with this contract are “burned” and the contract is no longer accessible.

@external
def do_the_needful():
    selfdestruct(msg.sender)
send(to: address, value: uint256) → None

Send ether from the contract to the specified Ethereum address.

  • to: The destination address to send ether to
  • value: The wei value to send to the address

Note

The amount to send is always specified in wei.

@external
def foo(_receiver: address, _amount: uint256):
    send(_receiver, _amount)

Cryptography

ecadd(a: uint256[2], b: uint256[2]) → uint256[2]

Take two points on the Alt-BN128 curve and add them together.

@external
@view
def foo(x: uint256[2], y: uint256[2]) -> uint256[2]:
    return ecadd(x, y)
>>> ExampleContract.foo([1, 2], [1, 2])
[
    1368015179489954701390400359078579693043519447331113978918064868415326638035,
    9918110051302171585080402603319702774565515993150576347155970296011118125764,
]
ecmul(point: uint256[2], scalar: uint256) → uint256[2]

Take a point on the Alt-BN128 curve (p) and a scalar value (s), and return the result of adding the point to itself s times, i.e. p * s.

  • point: Point to be multiplied
  • scalar: Scalar value
@external
@view
def foo(point: uint256[2], scalar: uint256) -> uint256[2]:
    return ecmul(point, scalar)
>>> ExampleContract.foo([1, 2], 3)
[
    3353031288059533942658390886683067124040920775575537747144343083137631628272,
    19321533766552368860946552437480515441416830039777911637913418824951667761761,
]
ecrecover(hash: bytes32, v: uint256, r: uint256, s: uint256) → address

Recover the address associated with the public key from the given elliptic curve signature.

  • r: first 32 bytes of signature
  • s: second 32 bytes of signature
  • v: final 1 byte of signature

Returns the associated address, or 0 on error.

@external
@view
def foo(hash: bytes32, v: uint256, r:uint256, s:uint256) -> address:
    return ecrecover(hash, v, r, s)
>>> ExampleContract.foo('0x6c9c5e133b8aafb2ea74f524a5263495e7ae5701c7248805f7b511d973dc7055',
     28,
     78616903610408968922803823221221116251138855211764625814919875002740131251724,
     37668412420813231458864536126575229553064045345107737433087067088194345044408
    )
'0x9eE53ad38Bb67d745223a4257D7d48cE973FeB7A'
keccak256(_value) → bytes32

Return a keccak256 hash of the given value.

  • _value: Value to hash. Can be a literal string, Bytes, or bytes32.
@external
@view
def foo(_value: Bytes[100]) -> bytes32
    return keccak256(_value)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(b"potato")
0x9e159dfcfe557cc1ca6c716e87af98fdcb94cd8c832386d0429b2b7bec02754f
sha256(_value) → bytes32

Return a sha256 (SHA2 256bit output) hash of the given value.

  • _value: Value to hash. Can be a literal string, Bytes, or bytes32.
@external
@view
def foo(_value: Bytes[100]) -> bytes32
    return sha256(_value)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(b"potato")
0xe91c254ad58860a02c788dfb5c1a65d6a8846ab1dc649631c7db16fef4af2dec

Data Manipulation

concat(a, b, *args) → Union[Bytes, String]

Take 2 or more bytes arrays of type bytes32, Bytes or String and combine them into a single value.

If the input arguments are String the return type is String. Otherwise the return type is Bytes.

@external
@view
def foo(a: String[5], b: String[5], c: String[5]) -> String[100]:
    return concat(a, " ", b, " ", c, "!")
>>> ExampleContract.foo("why","hello","there")
"why hello there!"
convert(value, type_) → Any

Converts a variable or literal from one type to another.

  • value: Value to convert
  • type_: The destination type to convert to (bool, decimal, int128, uint256 or bytes32)

Returns a value of the type specified by type_.

For more details on available type conversions, see Type Conversions.

extract32(b: Bytes, start: int128, output_type=bytes32) → Any

Extract a value from a Bytes list.

  • b: Bytes list to extract from
  • start: Start point to extract from
  • output_type: Type of output (bytes32, int128, or address). Defaults to bytes32.

Returns a value of the type specified by output_type.

@external
@view
def foo(Bytes[32]) -> address:
    return extract32(b, 12, output_type=address)
>>> ExampleContract.foo("0x0000000000000000000000009f8F72aA9304c8B593d555F12eF6589cC3A579A2")
"0x9f8F72aA9304c8B593d555F12eF6589cC3A579A2"
slice(b: Union[Bytes, bytes32, String], start: uint256, length: uint256) → Union[Bytes, String]

Copy a list of bytes and return a specified slice.

  • b: value being sliced
  • start: start position of the slice
  • length: length of the slice

If the value being sliced is a Bytes or bytes32, the return type is Bytes. If it is a String, the return type is String.

@external
@view
def foo(s: string[32]) -> string[5]:
    return slice(s, 4, 5)
>>> ExampleContract.foo("why hello! how are you?")
"hello"

Math

abs(value: int256) → int256

Return the absolute value of a signed integer.

  • value: Integer to return the absolute value of
@external
@view
def foo(value: int256) -> int256:
    return abs(value)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(-31337)
31337
ceil(value: decimal) → int128

Round a decimal up to the nearest integer.

  • value: Decimal value to round up
@external
@view
def foo(value: decimal) -> uint256:
    return ceil(value)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(3.1337)
4
floor(value: decimal) → int128

Round a decimal down to the nearest integer.

  • value: Decimal value to round down
@external
@view
def foo(value: decimal) -> uint256:
    return floor(value)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(3.1337)
3
max(a: numeric, b: numeric) → numeric

Return the creater value of a and b. The input values may be any numeric type as long as they are both of the same type. The output value is the same as the input values.

@external
@view
def foo(a: uint256, b: uint256) -> uint256:
    return max(a, b)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(23, 42)
42
min(a: numeric, b: numeric) → numeric

Returns the lesser value of a and b. The input values may be any numeric type as long as they are both of the same type. The output value is the same as the input values.

@external
@view
def foo(a: uint256, b: uint256) -> uint256:
    return min(a, b)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(23, 42)
23
pow_mod256(a: uint256, b: uint256) → uint256

Return the result of a ** b % (2 ** 256).

This method is used to perform exponentiation without overflow checks.

@external
@view
def foo(a: uint256, b: uint256) -> uint256:
    return pow_mod256(a, b)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(2, 3)
8
>>> ExampleContract.foo(100, 100)
59041770658110225754900818312084884949620587934026984283048776718299468660736
sqrt(d: decimal) → decimal

Return the square root of the provided decimal number, using the Babylonian square root algorithm.

@external
@view
def foo(d: decimal) -> decimal:
    return sqrt(d)
>>> ExampleContract.foo(9.0)
3.0
uint256_addmod(a: uint256, b: uint256, c: uint256) → uint256

Return the modulo of (a + b) % c. Reverts if c == 0.

@external
@view
def foo(a: uint256, b: uint256, c: uint256) -> uint256:
    return uint256_addmod(a, b, c)
>>> (6 + 13) % 8
3
>>> ExampleContract.foo(6, 13, 8)
3
uint256_mulmod(a: uint256, b: uint256, c: uint256) → uint256

Return the modulo from (a * b) % c. Reverts if c == 0.

@external
@view
def foo(a: uint256, b: uint256, c: uint256) -> uint256:
    return uint256_mulmod(a, b, c)
>>> (11 * 2) % 5
2
>>> ExampleContract.foo(11, 2, 5)
2

Utilities

as_wei_value(_value, unit: str) → uint256

Take an amount of ether currency specified by a number and a unit and return the integer quantity of wei equivalent to that amount.

  • _value: Value for the ether unit. Any numeric type may be used, however the value cannot be negative.
  • unit: Ether unit name (e.g. "wei", "ether", "gwei", etc.) indicating the denomination of _value. Must be given as a literal string.
@external
@view
def foo(s: String[32]) -> uint256:
    return as_wei_value(1.337, "ether")
>>> ExampleContract.foo(1)
1337000000000000000
blockhash(block_num: uint256) → bytes32

Return the hash of the block at the specified height.

Note

The EVM only provides access to the most 256 blocks. This function returns EMPTY_BYTES32 if the block number is greater than or equal to the current block number or more than 256 blocks behind the current block.

@external
@view
def foo() -> bytes32:
    return blockhash(block.number - 16)
>>> ExampleContract.foo()
0xf3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855
empty(typename) → Any

Return a value which is the default (zeroed) value of its type. Useful for initializing new memory variables.

  • typename: Name of the type
@external
@view
def foo():
    x: uint256[2][5] = empty(uint256[2][5])
len(b: Union[Bytes, String]) → uint256

Return the length of a given Bytes or String.

@external
@view
def foo(s: String[32]) -> uint256:
    return len(s)
>>> ExampleContract.foo("hello")
5
method_id(method, output_type: type = Bytes[4]) → Union[bytes32, Bytes[4]]

Takes a function declaration and returns its method_id (used in data field to call it).

  • method: Method declaration as given as a literal string
  • output_type: The type of output (Bytes[4] or bytes32). Defaults to Bytes[4].

Returns a value of the type specified by output_type.

@external
@view
def foo() -> Bytes[4]:
    return method_id('transfer(address,uint256)', output_type=Bytes[4])
>>> ExampleContract.foo()
_abi_encode(*args, ensure_tuple: bool = True) → Bytes[<depends on input>]

BETA, USE WITH CARE. Takes a variable number of args as input, and returns the ABIv2-encoded bytestring. Used for packing arguments to raw_call, EIP712 and other cases where a consistent and efficient serialization method is needed. Once this function has seen more use we provisionally plan to put it into the ethereum.abi namespace.

  • *args: Arbitrary arguments
  • ensure_tuple: If set to True, ensures that even a single argument is encoded as a tuple. In other words, bytes gets encoded as (bytes,). This is the calling convention for Vyper and Solidity functions. Except for very specific use cases, this should be set to True. Must be a literal.
  • method_id: A literal hex or Bytes[4] value to append to the beginning of the abi-encoded bytestring.

Returns a bytestring whose max length is determined by the arguments. For example, encoding a Bytes[32] results in a Bytes[64] (first word is the length of the bytestring variable).

@external
@view
def foo() -> Bytes[132]:
    x: uint256 = 1
    y: Bytes[32] = "234"
    return _abi_encode(x, y, method_id=method_id("foo()"))
>>> ExampleContract.foo().hex()
"c2985578"
"0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001"
"0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040"
"0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003"
"3233340000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000"