Types¶

Vyper is a statically typed language. The type of each variable (state and local) must be specified or at least known at compile-time. Vyper provides several elementary types which can be combined to form complex types.

In addition, types can interact with each other in expressions containing operators.

Value Types¶

The following types are also called value types because variables of these types will always be passed by value, i.e. they are always copied when they are used as function arguments or in assignments.

Boolean¶

Keyword: bool

A boolean is a type to store a logical/truth value.

Values¶

The only possible values are the constants True and False.

Operators¶

Operator

Description

not x

Logical negation

x and y

Logical conjunction

x or y

Logical disjunction

x == y

Equality

x != y

Inequality

Short-circuiting of boolean operators (or and and) is consistent with the behavior of Python.

Signed Integer (256 bit)¶

Keyword: int256

A signed integer (256 bit) is a type to store positive and negative integers.

Values¶

Signed integer values between -2255 and (2255 - 1), inclusive.

Interger literals cannot have a decimal point even if the decimal value is zero. For example, 2.0 cannot be interpreted as an integer.

Operators¶

Comparisons¶

Comparisons return a boolean value.

Operator

Description

x < y

Less than

x <= y

Less than or equal to

x == y

Equals

x != y

Does not equal

x >= y

Greater than or equal to

x > y

Greater than

x and y must be of the type int256.

Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator

Description

x + y

x - y

Subtraction

-x

Unary minus/Negation

x * y

Multiplication

x / y

Division

x**y

Exponentiation

x % y

Modulo

x and y must be of the type int256.

Signed Integer (128 bit)¶

Keyword: int128

A signed integer (128 bit) is a type to store positive and negative integers.

Values¶

Signed integer values between -2127 and (2127 - 1), inclusive.

Interger literals cannot have a decimal point even if the decimal value is zero. For example, 2.0 cannot be interpreted as an integer.

Operators¶

Comparisons¶

Comparisons return a boolean value.

Operator

Description

x < y

Less than

x <= y

Less than or equal to

x == y

Equals

x != y

Does not equal

x >= y

Greater than or equal to

x > y

Greater than

x and y must be of the type int128.

Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator

Description

x + y

x - y

Subtraction

-x

Unary minus/Negation

x * y

Multiplication

x / y

Division

x**y

Exponentiation

x % y

Modulo

x and y must be of the type int128.

Unsigned Integer (8 bit)¶

Keyword: uint8

An unsigned integer (8 bit) is a type to store non-negative integers.

Values¶

Integer values between 0 and (28-1).

Interger literals cannot have a decimal point even if the decimal value is zero. For example, 2.0 cannot be interpreted as an integer.

Note

Integer literals are interpreted as int128 by default. In cases where uint8 is more appropriate, such as assignment, the literal might be interpreted as uint8. Example: _variable: uint8 = _literal. In order to explicitly cast a literal to a uint8 use convert(_literal, uint8).

Operators¶

Comparisons¶

Comparisons return a boolean value.

Operator

Description

x < y

Less than

x <= y

Less than or equal to

x == y

Equals

x != y

Does not equal

x >= y

Greater than or equal to

x > y

Greater than

x and y must be of the type uint8.

Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator

Description

x + y

x - y

Subtraction

x * y

Multiplication

x / y

Division

x**y

Exponentiation

x % y

Modulo

x and y must be of the type uint8.

Unsigned Integer (256 bit)¶

Keyword: uint256

An unsigned integer (256 bit) is a type to store non-negative integers.

Values¶

Integer values between 0 and (2256-1).

Interger literals cannot have a decimal point even if the decimal value is zero. For example, 2.0 cannot be interpreted as an integer.

Note

Integer literals are interpreted as int128 by default. In cases where uint256 is more appropriate, such as assignment, the literal might be interpreted as uint256. Example: _variable: uint256 = _literal. In order to explicitly cast a literal to a uint256 use convert(_literal, uint256).

Operators¶

Comparisons¶

Comparisons return a boolean value.

Operator

Description

x < y

Less than

x <= y

Less than or equal to

x == y

Equals

x != y

Does not equal

x >= y

Greater than or equal to

x > y

Greater than

x and y must be of the type uint256.

Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator

Description

x + y

x - y

Subtraction

x * y

Multiplication

x / y

Division

x**y

Exponentiation

x % y

Modulo

x, y and z must be of the type uint256.

Decimals¶

Keyword: decimal

A decimal is a type to store a decimal fixed point value.

Values¶

A value with a precision of 10 decimal places between -2127 and (2127 - 1).

In order for a literal to be interpreted as decimal it must include a decimal point.

Operators¶

Comparisons¶

Comparisons return a boolean value.

Operator

Description

x < y

Less than

x <= y

Less or equal

x == y

Equals

x != y

Does not equal

x >= y

Greater or equal

x > y

Greater than

x and y must be of the type decimal.

Arithmetic Operators¶

Operator

Description

x + y

x - y

Subtraction

-x

Unary minus/Negation

x * y

Multiplication

x / y

Division

x % y

Modulo

x and y must be of the type decimal.

Values¶

An address type can hold an Ethereum address which equates to 20 bytes or 160 bits. Address literals must be written in hexadecimal notation with a leading 0x and must be checksummed.

Members¶

Member

Type

Description

balance

uint256

codehash

bytes32

Keccak of code at an address, EMPTY_BYTES32 if no contract is deployed

codesize

uint256

Size of code deployed an address, in bytes

is_contract

bool

Boolean indicating if a contract is deployed at an address

Syntax as follows: _address.<member>, where _address is of the type address and <member> is one of the above keywords.

Note

Operations such as SELFDESTRUCT and CREATE2 allow for the removal and replacement of bytecode at an address. You should never assume that values of address members will not change in the future.

32-bit-wide Byte Array¶

Keyword: bytes32 This is a 32-bit-wide byte array that is otherwise similar to byte arrays.

Example:

# Declaration
hash: bytes32
# Assignment
self.hash = _hash

Operators¶

Keyword

Description

keccak256(x)

Return the keccak256 hash as bytes32.

concat(x, ...)

Concatenate multiple inputs.

slice(x, start=_start, len=_len)

Return a slice of _len starting at _start.

Where x is a byte array and _start as well as _len are integer values.

Byte Arrays¶

Keyword: Bytes

A byte array with a fixed size.

The syntax being Bytes[maxLen], where maxLen is an integer which denotes the maximum number of bytes. On the ABI level the Fixed-size bytes array is annotated as bytes.

Bytes literals may be given as bytes strings, hexadecimal, or binary.

bytes_string: Bytes = b"\x01"
hex_bytes: Bytes = 0x01
binary_bytes: Bytes = 0b00000001

Strings¶

Keyword: String

Fixed-size strings can hold strings with equal or fewer characters than the maximum length of the string. On the ABI level the Fixed-size bytes array is annotated as string.

example_str: String = "Test String"

Reference Types¶

Reference types do not fit into 32 bytes. Because of this, copying their value is not as feasible as with value types. Therefore only the location, i.e. the reference, of the data is passed.

Fixed-size Lists¶

Fixed-size lists hold a finite number of elements which belong to a specified type.

Lists can be declared with _name: _ValueType[_Integer].

# Defining a list
exampleList: int128

# Setting values
exampleList = [10, 11, 12]
exampleList = 42

# Returning a value
return exampleList

Multidimensional lists are also possible. The notation for the declaration is reversed compared to some other languages, but the access notation is not reversed.

A two dimensional list can be declared with _name: _ValueType[inner_size][outer_size]. Elements can be accessed with _name[outer_index][inner_index].

# Defining a list with 2 rows and 5 columns and set all values to 0
exampleList2D: int128 = empty(int128)

# Setting a value for row the first row (0) and last column (4)
exampleList2D = 42

# Setting values
exampleList2D = [[10, 11, 12, 13, 14], [16, 17, 18, 19, 20]]

# Returning the value in row 0 column 4 (in this case 14)
return exampleList2D

Structs¶

Structs are custom defined types that can group several variables.

Struct types can be used inside mappings and arrays. Structs can contain arrays and other structs, but not mappings.

Struct members can be accessed via struct.argname.

# Defining a struct
struct MyStruct:
value1: int128
value2: decimal

# Declaring a struct variable
exampleStruct: MyStruct = MyStruct({value1: 1, value2: 2.0})

# Accessing a value
exampleStruct.value1 = 1

Mappings¶

Mappings are hash tables that are virtually initialized such that every possible key exists and is mapped to a value whose byte-representation is all zeros: a type’s default value.

The key data is not stored in a mapping, instead its keccak256 hash used to look up a value. For this reason mappings do not have a length or a concept of a key or value being “set”.

Mapping types are declared as HashMap[_KeyType, _ValueType].

• _KeyType can be any base or bytes type. Mappings, interfaces or structs are not support as key types.

• _ValueType can actually be any type, including mappings.

Note

Mappings are only allowed as state variables.

# Defining a mapping
exampleMapping: HashMap[int128, decimal]

# Accessing a value
exampleMapping = 10.1

Note

Mappings have no concept of length and so cannot be iterated over.

Initial Values¶

Unlike most programming languages, Vyper does not have a concept of null. Instead, every variable type has a default value. To check if a variable is empty, you must compare it to the default value for it’s given type.

To reset a variable to it’s default value, assign to it the built-in empty() function which constructs a zero value for that type.

Note

Memory variables must be assigned a value at the time they are declared.

Here you can find a list of all types and default values:

Type

Default Value

0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000

bool

False

bytes32

0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

decimal

0.0

int128

0

uint256

0

Note

In Bytes the array starts with the bytes all set to '\x00'

Note

In reference types all the type’s members are set to their initial values.

Type Conversions¶

All type conversions in Vyper must be made explicitly using the built-in convert(a: atype, btype) function. Currently, the following type conversions are supported:

In (atype)

Out (btype)

Allowable Values

bool

decimal

All

0.0 or 1.0

bool

int128

All

0 or 1

bool

uint256

All

0 or 1

bool

bytes32

All

0x00 or 0x01

bool

Bytes

All

decimal

bool

All

Returns a != 0.0

decimal

int128

All

Value is truncated

decimal

uint256

a >= 0.0

Value is truncated

decimal

bytes32

All

decimal

Bytes

All

int128

bool

All

Returns a != 0

int128

decimal

All

int128

uint256

a >= 0

Cannot convert negative values

int128

bytes32

All

int128

Bytes

All

uint8

bool

All

Returns a != 0

uint8

decimal

All

uint8

int128

All

uint8

bytes32

All

uint8

Bytes

All

uint256

bool

All

Returns a != 0

uint256

decimal

a <= MAX_DECIMAL

uint256

int128

a <= MAX_INT128

uint256

bytes32

All

uint256

Bytes

All

bytes32

bool

All

True if a is not empty

bytes32

decimal

All

bytes32

int128

All

bytes32

uint256

All

bytes32

Bytes

All